Watch Night Services

Kristeen Irigoyen-Hernandez aka Lady2Soothe


The Watch Night Services in Black communities celebrated today can be traced back to gatherings on December 31, 1862, also known as “Freedom’s Eve.” On that night, free and freed Blacks living in the Union States came together gathering at churches, private homes, and other safe spaces, while thousands of their enslaved Black sisters and brothers stood, knelt and prayed on plantations anxiously awaiting for President Lincoln to sign the Emancipation Proclamation into law. Then, at the stroke of midnight, January 1, 1863, all slaves in the Confederate States were declared legally free. When the news was received, there were prayers, shouts, and songs of joy as people fell to their knees and thanked God.

It’s been 156 years since the first Freedom’s Eve and Black folks have gathered in churches annually on New Year’s Eve ever since, praising God for bringing them safely through another year. African American Christians continue the faith tradition of their enslaved ancestors and will gather, Dec. 31, 2018, to celebrate they are the survivors of a people who were defined in the U.S. Constitution as three-fifths human, shackled in chains and denied the right to vote. Most people were never taught the African American history of Watch Night, but tradition still brings Blacks together to celebrate “how we got over.”

Harper’s Weekly, 21 February 1862. Source: While slavery was far from dead in the United States in early 1863, the signs increasingly were not good for its long-term survival.

Today, Lincoln is remembered as “The Great Emancipator,” but the story of emancipation is complex and contradictory, and the question of how we choose to commemorate this anniversary can be touchy. The purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation was to create confusion and disruption among the Confederate forces. The Emancipation Proclamation only granted freedom to those slaves residing in the Confederate States and not the slaves residing in the Union States as Lincoln didn’t have any jurisdiction over slaves residing in Confederate States because these states had seceded from the United States, ergo, the Civil War, therefore, he did not have the authority to emancipate slaves in the Confederacy, in essence, the Emancipation Proclamation was a worthless document.

In actuality, Lincoln was just as racist as the rest of the peers of his era. This is evidenced by his saying the following at the Fourth Debate with Stephen A. Douglas at Charleston, Illinois.

(The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln edited by Roy P. Basler, Volume III, pp. 145-146)

EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION

Whereas, on the twenty-second day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, a proclamation was issued by the President of the United States, containing, among other things, the following, to wit:

“That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.

“That the Executive will, on the first day of January aforesaid, by proclamation, designate the States and parts of States, if any, in which the people thereof, respectively, shall then be in rebellion against the United States; and the fact that any State, or the people thereof, shall on that day be, in good faith, represented in the Congress of the United States by members chosen thereto at elections wherein a majority of the qualified voters of such State shall have participated, shall, in the absence of strong countervailing testimony, be deemed conclusive evidence that such State, and the people thereof, are not then in rebellion against the United States.”

Now, therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested as Commander-in-Chief, of the Army and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion against the authority and government of the United States, and as a fit and necessary war measure for suppressing said rebellion, do, on this first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and in accordance with my purpose so to do publicly proclaimed for the full period of one hundred days, from the day first above mentioned, order and designate as the States and parts of States wherein the people thereof respectively, are this day in rebellion against the United States, the following, to wit:

Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, (except the Parishes of St. Bernard, Plaquemines, Jefferson, St. John, St. Charles, St. James Ascension, Assumption, Terrebonne, Lafourche, St. Mary, St. Martin, and Orleans, including the City of New Orleans) Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia, (except the forty-eight counties designated as West Virginia, and also the counties of Berkley, Accomac, Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, Princess Ann, and Norfolk, including the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth[)], and which excepted parts, are for the present, left precisely as if this proclamation were not issued.

And by virtue of the power, and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward shall be free; and that the Executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons.

And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence, unless in necessary self-defense; and I recommend to them that, in all cases when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages.

And I further declare and make known, that such persons of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service.

And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution, upon military necessity, I invoke the considerate judgment of mankind, and the gracious favor of Almighty God.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the City of Washington, this first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty three, and of the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-seventh.

By the President: ABRAHAM LINCOLN
WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

It’s said the Emancipation Proclamation freed no slaves. In a way, this is true. The Emancipation Proclamation actually freed few people. The proclamation only applied to the Confederate States, as an act to seize enemy resources. By freeing slaves in the Confederacy, Lincoln was actually freeing people he did not directly control as a military measure which was a result of Union battlefield losses by July 1862, the President decided emancipation was a military necessity and ordered slaves freed in areas which were in rebellion against the U.S., declaring the military would enforce their freedom, and receive former slaves into the U.S. military, however it didn’t apply to border slave states like Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri, all of which had remained loyal to the Union.

After the Emancipation Proclamation, the Southern cause was now the defense of slavery. The proclamation was a shrewd maneuver by Lincoln to brand the Confederate States as a slave nation and render foreign aid impossible because the Proclamation only applied to the ten states still in rebellion in 1863, and thus did not cover the nearly 500,000 slaves in the slave-holding border states.

The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution actually abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. It was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, and by the House on January 31, 1865.

Indian Boarding Schools

Kristeen Irigoyen-Hernandez aka Lady2Soothe


This is a manual cover page from the Government and Church in 1916 on how to kidnap Indigenous children from their parents by removing their culture, language, and identity and assimilating them into the dominant culture. “The great aim of our legislation has been to do away with the tribal system and assimilate the Indian people in all respects with the other inhabitants of the Dominion as speedily as they are fit to change.” 1887 – John A McDonald. Architect of the Indian Act

The government paid religious orders to provide basic education to Native American children on reservations. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) founded additional boarding schools based on the assimilation model of the off-reservation Carlisle Indian Industrial School.

The US government wanted to destroy the identity of Indians by ripping over 100,000 children from their homes and families and put in boarding schools to be “civilized” by beating the native out of them with leather belts, whips and sticks.

Classes at Chemewa Indian School began with 18 students—14 boys and 4 girls

460 boarding and day schools had been built near reservations, most run by religious organizations with government funds. All told, more than 100,000 1st Nation Indigenous Native Americans were forced by the U.S. government to attend Christian schools where tribal languages and cultures were replaced by English and Christianity. Students were prohibited from speaking their native languages. Instead, they were supposed to converse and even think in English. If they were caught “speaking Indian” they were severely beaten with a leather belt.

Harper’s Weekly Jan. 16, 1869

Virtually imprisoned in the schools, children experienced a devastating litany of abuses, from forced assimilation and grueling labor to widespread sexual and physical abuse “where recent generations learned the fine art of standing in line single-file for hours without moving a hair, as a lesson in discipline; where our best and brightest earned graduation certificates for homemaking and masonry; where the sharp rules of immaculate living were instilled through blistered hands and knees on the floor with scouring toothbrushes; where mouths were scrubbed with lye and chlorine solutions for uttering Native words.”

The boarding schools ran on bare-bones budgets, and large numbers of students died from starvation and disease because of inadequate food and medical care. School officials routinely forced children to do arduous work to raise money for staff salaries and “leased out” students during the summers to farm or work as domestics for white families.

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Physical hardship, however, was merely the backdrop to a systematic assault on Native culture. School staff sheared children’s hair, banned traditional clothing and customs, and forced children to worship as Christians. Eliminating Native languages — considered an obstacle to the “acculturation” process — was a top priority, and teachers devised an extensive repertoire of punishments for uncooperative children. “I was forced to eat an entire bar of soap for speaking my language,” says AIUSA activist Byron Wesley (Navajo).

Students at residential schools faced a number of hazards, from fires to experimentation, according to the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

Indian Boarding School_23 #LetOurVoicesEcho

Children Who Never Came Home

Many children died while in the Indian Residential School system. Their bodies were often buried at cemeteries near the schools. Some families didn’t know (and still don’t) what happened to their children or their bodies. Many of its children died of abuse, diseases to which they had no immunity, and homesickness. Imagine being taken from your family, sent thousands of miles away, prohibited from speaking your language, and forced into a military-style existence.

#IndianChildrenSold #LetOurVoicesEcho

After the United States declared independence, American politicians quickly identified dissolution of Native American cultures as a necessary step in undermining tribal saliency and in ensuring the political dominion of state and federal governments. By the 19th century, policymakers were convinced that encouraging Indians to put aside their “savage ways” would help tribal populations achieve cultural and spiritual salvation through Christianity. In 1869, President Grant initiated a “Peace Policy” granting Christian missions contracts and federal funding to civilize and Christianize the Native American peoples of assigned reservations. The federal government established boarding schools for the children of tribal communities to teach English, Christianity, and occupational skills in order to “Kill the Indian in him and Save the Man.”

Thomas Moore Photo and bio Credit student register for the Regina Indian Industrial School, 1891 to 1908 (microfilm R-2.40, see entry No. 22): Thomas Moore was admitted to the Regina Indian Industrial School on August 26, 1891 when he was 8 years old. He was a full-blooded Indian from the Saulteaux tribe. He was from the Muscowpetung Band which is about 35 miles northeast of Regina. His full name was Thomas Moore Kusick. His father was St.(?) Paul Desjarlais (deceased) and his mother’s name was Hanna Moore Kusick. The boy was a Protestant and had previously attended Lakes End School. His state of education upon admission consisted of knowing the alphabet. His height was 3 feet, 11 inches and he weighed 54 1/2 pounds. 

Indian Boarding School_21 #LetOurVoicesEcho

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Above: Tom Tortino (Navajo) 1882 (left) 3 years later 1885 (right) Carlisle Indian Industrial School

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Indian Boarding School_22 #LetOurVoicesEcho

Not until 1969, and after years of unequal schooling, the National Indian Education Association (NIEA) was formed to fight for equal education for 1st Nation Indigenous Native Americans.

~ Aho

140 NATIVE AMERICAN BOARDING SCHOOLS

1. Absentee Shawnee Boarding School, near Shawnee, Indian Territory open 1893–99
2. Albuquerque Indian School, Albuquerque, New Mexico
3. Anadarko Boarding School, Anadarko, Oklahoma open 1911–33
4. Arapaho Manual Labor and Boarding School, Darlington, Indian Territory opened in 1872 and paid with by federal funds but run by the Hicksite (Liberal) Friends and Orthodox Quakers. Moved to Concho Indian Boarding School in 1909.
5. Armstrong Academy, near Chahta Tamaha, Indian Territory
6. Asbury Manual Labor School, near Fort Mitchell, Alabama open 1822–30 by the United Methodist Missions.
7. Asbury Manual Labor School, near Eufaula, Creek Nation, Indian Territory, open 1850–88 by the United Methodist Missions.
8. Bacone College, Muscogee, Oklahoma, 1881–present
9. Bloomfield Female Academy, originally near Achille, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory. Opened in 1848 but relocated to Ardmore, Oklahoma around 1917 and in 1934 was renamed Carter Seminary.
10. Bond’s Mission School or Montana Industrial School for Indians, run by Unitarians, Crow Indian Reservation near Custer Station, Montana, 1886–97
11. Burney Institute, near Lebanon, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1854–87 when name changed to Chickasaw Orphan Home and Manual Labor School and operated by the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.
12. Cameron Institute, Cameron, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1893–early 20th century, was operated by the Presbyterian Church
13. Cantonment Indian Boarding School, Canton, Indian Territory run by the General Conference Mennonites from September, 1882 to 1 July 1927
14. Carlisle Indian School, Carlisle, Pennsylvania, open 1879–1918
15. Carter Seminary, Ardmore, Oklahoma 1917–2004 when the facility moved to Kingston, Oklahoma and was renamed the Chickasaw Children’s Village.
16. Chamberlain Indian School, Chamberlain, South Dakota
17. Chemawa Indian School, Salem, Oregon
18. Cherokee Female Seminary, Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory open 1851–1910
19. Cherokee Male Seminary, Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory open 1851–1910
20. Cherokee Orphan Asylum, Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory opened in 1871
21. Cheyenne-Arapaho Boarding School, Darlington, Indian Territory opened 1871 became the Arapaho Manual Labor and Boarding School in 1879
22. Cheyenne Manual Labor and Boarding School, Caddo Springs, Indian Territory, opened 1879 and paid with by federal funds, but run by the Hicksite (Liberal) Friends and Orthodox Quakers. Moved to Concho Indian Boarding School in 1909.
23. Chickasaw (male) Academy, near Tishomingo, Chickasaw Nation, Oklahoma Opened in 1850 by the Methodist Episcopal Church and changed its name to Harley Institute around 1889.
24. Chickasaw Children’s Village, on Lake Texoma near Kingston, Oklahoma opened 2004
25. Chickasaw National Academy, near Stonewall, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory Open about 1865 to 1880
26. Chickasaw Orphan Home and Manual Labor School (formerly Burney Academy) near Lebanon, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1887–1906
27. Chilocco Indian Agricultural School, Chilocco, Oklahoma, open 1884–1980
28. Chinle Boarding School, Many Farms, Arizona
29. Choctaw Academy, Blue Spring, Scott County, Kentucky opened 1825
30. Chuala Female Seminary (also known as the Pine Ridge Mission School), near Doaksville, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1838–61 by the Presbyterian Church
31. Circle of Nations Indian School , Wahpeton, North Dakota
32. Colbert Institute, Perryville, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1852–57 by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South
33. Collins Institute, near Stonewall, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory Open about 1885 to 1905
34. Concho Indian Boarding School, Concho, Oklahoma open 1909–83
35. Creek Orphan Asylum, Okmulgee, Creek Nation, Indian Territory opened 1895
36. Darlington Mission School, Darlington, Indian Territory run by the General Conference Mennonites from 1881 to 1902
37. Dwight Mission, Marble City, Oklahoma
38. Elliott Academy (formerly Oak Hill Industrial Academy), near Valliant, Oklahoma, 1912–36
39. El Meta Bond College, Minco, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory, open 1890–1919
40. Emahaka Mission, Wewoka, Seminole Nation, Indian Territory open 1894–1911
41. Euchee Boarding School, Sapulpa, Creek Nation, Indian Territoryopen 1894–1947
42. Eufaula Dormitory, Eufaula, Oklahoma name changed from Eufaula High School in 1952. Still in operation
43. Eufaula Indian High School, Eufaula, Creek Nation, Indian Territory replaced the burned Asbury Manual Labor School. Open in 1892–1952, when the name changed to Eufaula Dormitory
44. Flandreau Indian School, South Dakota
45. Folsom Training School, near Smithville, Oklahoma open 1921–32, when it became an all-white school
46. Fort Bidwell School, Fort Bidwell, California
47. Fort Coffee Academy, Fort Coffee, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory Open 1840–63 and run by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South
48. Fort Shaw Indian School, Fort Shaw, Montana
49. Fort Sill Indian School (originally known as Josiah Missionary School), near Fort Sill, Indian Territoryopened in 1871 by the Quakers, remained open until 1980
50. Fort Totten Indian Industrial School, Fort Totten, North Dakota Boarding and Indian Industrial School in 1891–1935. Became a Community and Day School from 1940 to 1959. Now a Historic Site run by the State Historic Society of North Dakota.
51. Genoa Indian Industrial School, Genoa, Nebraska
52. Goodland Academy & Indian Orphanage, Hugo, Oklahoma
53. Greenville School, California
54. Hampton Institute, began accepting Native students in
55. Harley Institute, near Tishomingo, Chickasaw Nation, Oklahoma Prior to 1889 was known as the Chickasaw Academy and was operated by the Methodist Episcopal Church until 1906.
56. Haskell Indian Industrial Training School, Lawrence, Kansas, 1884–present
57. Hayward Indian School, Hayward, Wisconsin
58. Hillside Mission School, near Skiatook, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory open 1884–1908 by the Quakers
59. Holbrook Indian School, Holbrook, Arizona
60. Ignacio Boarding School, Colorado
61. Iowa Mission School, near Fallis, Iowa Reservation, Indian Territory open 1890–93 by the Quakers
62. Intermountain Indian School, Utah
63. Jones Academy, Hartshorne, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory/Oklahoma] Opened in 1891
64. Koweta Mission School Coweta, Creek Nation, Indian Territory open 1843–61
65. Levering Manual Labor School, Wetumka, Creek Nation, Indian Territory Open 1882–91, operated by the Southern Baptist Convention.
66. Many Farms High School, near Many Farms, Arizona
67. Marty Indian School, Marty, South Dakota
68. Mekasukey Academy, near Seminole, Seminole Nation, Indian Territory open 1891–1930
69. Morris Industrial School for Indians, Morris, Minnesota, open 1887–1909
70. Mount Edgecumbe High School, Sitka, Alaska, established as a BIA school, now operated by the State of Alaska
71. Mount Pleasant Indian Industrial Boarding School, Mount Pleasant, Michigan, 1893–1934
72. Murray State School of Agriculture, Tishomingo, Oklahoma, est. 1908
73. Nenannezed Boarding School, New Mexico
74. New Hope Academy, Fort Coffee, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory Open 1844–96 and run by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South
75. Nuyaka School and Orphanage (Nuyaka Mission, Presbyterian), Okmulgee, Creek Nation, Indian Territory, 1884–1933
76. Oak Hill Industrial Academy, near Valliant, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory Open 1878–1912 by the Presbyterian Mission Board. The Choctaw freedmen’s academy was renamed as the Elliott Academy (aka Alice Lee Elliott Memorial Academy) in 1912.
77. Oak Ridge Manual Labor School, near Holdenville Indian Territory in the Seminole Nation. Open 1848–60s by the Presbyterian Mission Board.
78. Oklahoma Presbyterian College for Girls, Durant, Oklahoma
79. Oklahoma School for the Blind, Muskogee, Oklahoma
80. Oklahoma School for the Deaf, Sulphur, Oklahoma
81. Oneida Indian School, Wisconsin
82. Osage Boarding School, Pawhuska, Osage Nation, Indian Territory open 1874–1922
83. Park Hill Mission School, Park Hill Indian Territory/Oklahoma opened 1837
84. Pawnee Boarding School, Pawnee, Indian Territory, open 1878–1958
85. Phoenix Indian School, Phoenix, Arizona
86. Pierre Indian School, Pierre, South Dakota
87. Pine Ridge Boarding School, Pine Ridge, South Dakota
88. Pine Ridge Mission School, near Doaksville, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory see Chuala Female Seminary
89. Pinon Boarding School, Pinon, Arizona
90. Pipestone Indian School, Pipestone, Minnesota
91. Quapaw Industrial Boarding School, Quapaw Agency Indian Territory open 1872–1900
92. Rainy Mountain Boarding School, near Gotebo, Kiowa-Comanche-Apache Reservation, Indian Territory, open 1893–1920
93. Rapid City Indian School, Rapid City, South Dakota
94. Red Moon School, near Hammon, Indian Territory open 1897–1922
95. Riverside Indian School, Anadarko, Oklahoma open 1871–present
96. Sac and Fox Boarding School, near Stroud, Indiant Territory, open 1872–1919 by the Quakers
97. Sacred Heart College, near Asher, Potowatamie Nation, Indian Territory open 1884–1902
98. Sacred Heart Institute, near Asher, Potowatamie Nation, Indian Territory open 1880–1929
99. St. Agnes Academy, Ardmore, Oklahoma
100. St. Agnes Mission, Antlers, Oklahoma
101. St. Boniface Indian School, Banning, California
102. St. Elizabeth’s Boarding School, Purcell, Oklahoma
103. St. John’s Boarding School, Gray Horse, Osage Nation, Indian Territory open 1888–1913 and operated by the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions
104. St. Joseph’s Boarding School, Chickasha, Oklahoma
105. St. Mary’s Academy, near Asher, Potowatamie Nation, Indian Territory open 1880–1946
106. St. Louis Industrial School, Pawhuska, Osage Nation, Indian Territory open 1887–1949 and operated by the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions
107. St. Mary’s Boarding School, Quapaw Agency Indian Territory/Oklahoma open 1893–1927
108. St. Patrick’s Mission and Boarding School, Anadarko, Indian Territory open 1892–1909 by the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions. It was rebuilt and called the Anadarko Boarding School.
109. San Juan Boarding School, New Mexico
110. Santa Fe Indian School, Santa Fe, New Mexico
111. Sasakwa Female Academy, Sasakwa, Seminole Nation, Indian Territory open 1880–92 and run by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South
112. Seger Indian Training School, Colony, Indian Territory
113. Seneca, Shawnee, and Wyandotte Industrial Boarding School, Wyandotte, Indian Territory
114. Sequoyah High School, Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory
115. Shawnee Boarding School, near Shawnee, Indian Territory, open 1876–1918
116. Shawnee Boarding School, Shawnee, Oklahoma open 1923–61
117. Sherman Indian High School, Riverside, California
118. Shiprock Boarding School, Shiprock, New Mexico
119. Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico
120. Spencer Academy (sometimes referred to as the National School of the Choctaw Nation), near Doaksville, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1842–1900
121. Springfield Indian School, Springfield, South Dakota
122. Stewart Indian School, Carson City, Nevada
123. Sulphur Springs Indian School, Pontotoc County, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1896–98
124. Theodore Roosevelt Indian Boarding School, founded in 1923 in buildings of the U.S. Army’s closed Fort Apache, Arizona, as of 2016 still in operation as a tribal school
125. Thomas Indian School, near Irving, New York
126. Tomah Indian School, Wisconsin
127. Tullahassee Mission School, Tullahassee, Creek Nation, Indian Territory opened 1850 burned 1880
128. Tullahassee Manual Labor School, Tullahassee, Creek Nation, Indian Territory open 1883–1914 for Creek Freedmen
129. Tushka Lusa Institute (later called Tuska Lusa or Tushkaloosa Academy), near Talihina, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory opened 1892 for Choctaw Freedmen
130. Tuskahoma Female Academy, Lyceum, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1892–1925
131. Wahpeton Indian School, Wahpeton, North Dakota, 1904–93. In 1993 its name was changed to Circle of Nations School and came under tribal control. Currently open.
132. Wapanucka Academy (also sometimes called Allen Academy), near Bromide, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory Open 1851–1911 by the Presbyterian Church.
133. Wealaka Mission School Wealaka, Indian Territory open 1882–1907
134. Wewoka Mission School, (also known as Ramsey Mission School) near Wewoka, Seminole Nation, Indian Territory Open 1868–80 by the Presbyterian Mission Board.
135. Wheelock Academy, Millerton, Oklahoma closed 1955
136. White’s Manual Labor Institute, Wabash, Indiana Open 1870–95 and operated by the Quakers
137. White’s Manual Labor Institute, West Branch, Iowa, open 1881–87
138. Wetumka Boarding School, Wetumka, Creek Nation, Indian Territory Levering Manual Labor School transferred from the Baptists to the Muscogee (Creek) Nation in 1891 and they changed the name to the Wetumka Boarding School. Operated until 1910.
139. Wittenberg Indian School, Wittenberg, Wisconsin
140. Yellow Springs School, Pontotoc County, Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory open 1896–1905

press

Kristeen Irigoyen-Hernandez
Human Rights Advocate, Researcher/Chronological Archivist and member in good standing with the Constitution First Amendment Press Association (CFAPA.org)

Pigmentary Demarcation: Systematic Discrimination and Inhumane Treatment Defined by Skin Color

Kristeen Hernandez aka Lady2Soothe

Racism and religion have killed more people than any disease in history and bigots have no shortage of language to express their small-mindedness; it’s a well-honed vernacular in a country still struggling with race even decades after constitutionally protected equality was established… When you’re accustomed to privilege, equality feels like oppression, and as Toni Morrison said “In this country American means White. Everybody else has to hyphenate.”

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Aution

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Slaves chained together so they don’t escape from their Master.

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Aetna Ins. Co. of Hartford CT. newspaper ad informing the public they’ve moved to a new location but are still offering “Negro Slaves for Sale”

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46 #LetOurVoicesEcho

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Additional Photos below

RACE describes categories assigned to demographic groups based on observable PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS such as SKIN COLOR, HAIR TEXTURE, LIP, NOSE and EYE SHAPE. A group of people sharing similar and distinct physical characteristics, differences and similarities in biological traits deemed by society to be socially significant

ETHNICITY refers to the SOCIAL CHARATERISTICS people may have in common, such as language, religion, regional background, culture, foods, etc. Ethnicity is revealed by the traditions one follows, a person’s native language, and so on.

NATIONALITY is the legal relationship between a person and a country.

RACISM is systematic discrimination because of race. It is the belief all members of each race possess characteristics or abilities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races. Prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior. Racism was established long before nationality and religious bigotry existed.

In ancient Egypt there were no vowels; Negro was represented as N-G-R and pronounced en-jer, which is auditory for GOD. Therefore N-G-R: NEGRO translates to Devine Being or God. Moving forward to 735 BC Rome where the language of Latin came into use; Nigrum or Negro (pronounced neg-ro) meaning the color black originated as a neutral term referring to people with black skin.

(1280-1337) African ruler Mansa Musa was the fourteenth-century emperor of the Mali Empire. Mansa Musa established religious freedom. Education was free and encouraged. He even established a university. People came from all over the world to study at this famous university. When Muslim scholars visited Mali, they were surprised at the people’s clothes. About 90,000 men on duty at any one time to guard the gold mines and Traders always stopped at Mali as they knew they would be welcomed, fed, housed, and safe because of Mansa Musa’s generosity. Trade with Mali was always good for the traders who had come so far. Mansa Musa traveled with 100 camels, each carrying 300 lbs of gold. After adjusting for inflation, he was worth $400 billion in today’s currency which is more than Bill Gates and Warren Buffet combined, with $200 billion left over for good measure.

Skipping forward many centuries to the 1500’s and progressing through the mid-1800’s, the Atlantic Slave Trade transported over 10 million African’s; nearly 15% of slaves were captured in the River Niger Delta Region in West Africa and delivered to the coast to be sold at European trading ports. It is believed these slaves were called Niger’s (pronounced Ni-gir) to differentiate them from other regions such as the Congo, Angola or Cameroon.

Word alterations in the US and the negative connotations they elicit as a description of a “negro or “N,” with no value attached to the word itself. During the period of subjugation the words “N” or “Black” was situated in front of a first name to distinguish a slave from a White person with the same first name establishing the pigment demarcation line, thus becoming an intentional derogatory term to belittle and degrade.

The racial formation and derogatory use of the “N” word is not much different than plantation owners feeding slaves as cheaply as possible with poor quality leftover waste foods and scraps as a means of a complex social, economic and political system to control and punish. African slaves were extremely creative with their provisions which evolved into the distinct cuisine, Soul Food; the correlation and racial project being, by using the “N” word by Blacks in today’s culture; it is now elevated to a level of sophistication, thereby negating the disparaging intent.

Nigga vs Nigger is a representation of homophones with the “N” word defining peoples’ who are economically, politically, socially enslaved and dominated under the rule of oppression by the use of racial formation, or as Voltaire claimed “The negro race is a species of men different from ours as the breed of spaniels is from that of greyhounds”. While the word “nigga” is a phrase used in the Black community to define brotherhood, friendship, affections and at times even animosity, it’s the latter of the two which many Black’s chose to use as a term of endearment.

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FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT
Fugitive slave laws were laws passed by the United States Congress in 1793 and 1850 to provide for the return of slaves who escaped from one state into another state or territory. The idea of the fugitive slave law was derived from the Fugitive Slave Clause which is in the United States Constitution (Article IV, Section 2, Paragraph 3). It was thought forcing states to deliver escaped slaves to slave owners violated states’ rights due to state sovereignty and was believed that seizing state property should not be left up to the states. The Fugitive Slave Clause states escaped slaves “shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labor may be due”, which abridged state rights because retrieving slaves was a form of retrieving private property. After the compromise of 1850, the Supreme Court made slavery a protected institution and arranged a series of laws allowing slavery in the new territories and forced officials in Free States to give a hearing to slaveholders without a jury. Northerners felt like this was a kidnapping process.

Fugitive Slave #LetOurVoicesEcho

Massachusetts had abolished slavery in 1783, but the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 required government officials to assist slavecatchers in capturing fugitives within the state.

The cruelty of slavery.

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The enslavement of African’s in the America’s by the nations and people’s of Western Europe created the economic engine which funded American Capitalism

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1860

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Slaves were punished for a variety of reasons, most of the time it was for working too slow or running away

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The White Christian and moral influences have not only done little to prevent the Negro from becoming a criminal they deliberately shut him out of society.

Cudjo Lewis #LetOur Voices Echo

Cudjo Lewis (1841 – 1935) is considered the last survivor of the last slave ship to enter the United States. He was born around 1841 to a Yoruba family in the Bantè region of Dahomey (today Benin).

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According to news sources “HE” made that nigger wear a bell for a year and took it off on Christmas as a present “It sho did make a good Nigger outta him”

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Goldsboro NC … His pants have been pulled down and he was castrated.

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Delaware 1907: Two prisoners in pillory and another tied to a whipping post below.

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Young children were not immune from field work 6 days a week from dawn to dusk

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Wet Nursemaid: She was free, technically, and paid a wage of about 10 dollars a month. However, she was basically enslaved. She saw her own children once every 2 weeks, meaning she couldn’t use her own body to provide nourishment for her own children. To feed white children when you are racially oppressed by the white race was traumatizing to say the least. Negro nurses typically worked 14-16 hour days. She had to be at the child’s beck and call to feed and bathe this baby and take care of any older children in the household. It was dehumanizing and robbed her of her dignity.

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Lincoln

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Gordon, or Whipped Peter, was a slave on a Louisiana plantation who escaped from slavery in 1863. He would go on to serve as a soldier in the United States Colored Troops. Harper’s Weekly published photos of Gordon’s scarred back, the result of his time in slavery. The photos helped make slavery more real for those living in the North and accelerated the Union cause in the war.

Soldier

African-Americans made up less than 1 percent of the North’s population but were 10 percent of the Union Army. Black men weren’t allowed to join the army until 1863. About 180,000 Black men, more than 85 percent of eligible African-Americans in the Northern states, fought. While White soldiers earned $13 a month, Black soldiers earned only $10 — and then were charged a $3 clothing fee that lowered their monthly pay to $7. The highest paid Black soldier made less than the lowest paid White one. After protesting by refusing to accept their wages and gaining support from abolitionist Congressmen, Black soldiers finally received equal pay in 1864 — paid retroactively to their enlistment date.

Silas #LetOurVoicesEcho

Andrew Chandler and his slave Silas Chandler who accompanied his master to war as a “bodyguard.” This tintype is the only one of its kind showing a Confederate soldier with his slave. It was proven Silas was a slave through his pension records and he had not been set free or bought his freedom prior to the war and the Chandler family had not donated the land upon which Silas founded a church for former slaves after the war. The weapons in the famous photograph were props likely given to them just for the picture. READ MORE

Authored by Chuck Allen “Relentless Prison Ministry”

In 1866, one year after the 13 Amendment was ratified (the amendment that ended slavery), Alabama, Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, Florida, Tennessee, and South Carolina began to lease out convicts for labor (peonage). This made the business of arresting Blacks very lucrative, which is why hundreds of White men were hired by these states as police officers. Their primary responsibility was to search out and arrest Blacks who were in violation of Black Codes. Once arrested, these men, women and children would be leased to plantations where they would harvest cotton, tobacco, sugar cane. Or they would be leased to work at coal mines, or railroad companies. The owners of these businesses would pay the state for every prisoner who worked for them; prison labor.

It is believed that after the passing of the 13th Amendment, more than 800,000 Blacks were part of the system of peonage, or re-enslavement through the prison system. Peonage didn’t end until after World War II began, around 1940.

This is how it happened.

The 13th Amendment declared that “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” (Ratified in 1865)

Did you catch that? It says, “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude could occur except as a punishment for a crime”. Lawmakers used this phrase to make petty offenses crimes. When Blacks were found guilty of committing these crimes, they were imprisoned and then leased out to the same businesses that lost slaves after the passing of the 13th Amendment. This system of convict labor is called peonage.

The majority of White Southern farmers and business owners hated the 13th Amendment because it took away slave labor. As a way to appease them, the federal government turned a blind eye when southern states used this clause in the 13th Amendment to establish laws called Black Codes. Here are some examples of Black Codes:
In Louisiana, it was illegal for a Black man to preach to Black congregations without special permission in writing from the president of the police. If caught, he could be arrested and fined. If he could not pay the fines, which were unbelievably high, he would be forced to work for an individual, or go to jail or prison where he would work until his debt was paid off.

If a Black person did not have a job, he or she could be arrested and imprisoned on the charge of vagrancy or loitering.

This next Black Code will make you cringe. In South Carolina, if the parent of a Black child was considered vagrant, the judicial system allowed the police and/or other government agencies to “apprentice” the child to an “employer”. Males could be held until the age of 21, and females could be held until they were 18. Their owner had the legal right to inflict punishment on the child for disobedience, and to recapture them if they ran away.
This (peonage) is an example of systemic racism – Racism established and perpetuated by government systems. Slavery was made legal by the U.S. Government. Segregation, Black Codes, Jim Crow and peonage were all made legal by the government, and upheld by the judicial system. These acts of racism were built into the system, which is where the term “Systemic Racism” is derived.

This is the part of “Black History” that most of us were never told about.

Burying the Dead

Burying the Dead – Civil War

Whites Used Blacks as Alligator Bait

In 1908 the Washington Times reported that a keeper at the New York Zoological Garden baited “Alligators With Pickaninnies” out of their winter quarters. In the article two “small colored children happened to drift through the reptile house among the throng of visitors” and they were “pressed into service.” The alligators “wobbled out as quick as they could after the ebony mites, who darted around the tank just as the pursuing monsters fell with grunts of chagrin into the water.” The alligators were “coaxed” into their summer quarters by “plump little Africans”

The practice has been documented in at least three movies: “Alligator Bait” (1900) and “The ‘Gator and the Pickaninny” (1900). And the story of two black boys who served as alligator bait was told in “Untamed Fury” (1947).

Alligator Bait

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Billie Holiday ~ Strange Fruit

WEB Du Bois writes of the April 23, 1899 lynching of Sam Hose in Georgia. Du Bois reported the knuckles of the victim were on display at a local store on Mitchell Street in Atlanta and a piece of the man’s heart and liver was presented to the state’s governor. https://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/502

Postcard depicting the lynching of Lige Daniels, Center, Texas, USA, August 3, 1920. Lyniching Blacks 2

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This mans’ pants are pulled down to humiliate and scare him before he’s castrated then hung

Laura NelsonLaura Nelson Okemah OK May 25, 1911

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Fire 2Jesse Washington 17 yr. old May 15, 1916 Waco TX

Washington was accused of raping and murdering Lucy Fryer, the wife of his white employer in rural Robinson TX . Washington a mildly mentally challenged was tried for murder in Waco, in a courtroom filled with furious locals. The trial lasted about one hour and after four minutes of deliberation, the jury’s foreman announced a guilty verdict and a sentence of death. After his sentence was pronounced, he was dragged out of the court by observers, they put a chain on his neck and lynched him in front of Waco’s city hall. Over 16,000 spectators, including city officials and police, gathered to watch the attack. There was a celebratory atmosphere at the event, and many children attended during their lunch hour. Members of the mob castrated Washington, cut off his fingers so he couldn’t climb the chain, and hung him over a bonfire. He was repeatedly lowered and raised over the fire for about two hours. After the fire was extinguished, his charred torso was dragged through the town and parts of his body were sold as souvenirs. A professional photographer took pictures as the event unfolded, providing rare imagery of a lynching in progress. The pictures were printed and sold as postcards in Waco.

Raymond Gunn

In the 1931 Maryville, Missouri, lynching of Raymond Gunn, the crowd estimated at 2,000 to 4,000 was at least a ¼ women, and included hundreds of children. One woman “held her little girl up so she could get a better view of the naked Negro blazing on the roof. After the fire was out, hundreds poked about in his ashes for souvenirs. “The charred remains of the victim were divided piece by piece,” 

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Lynching 2 guys

Lynching phone pole

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Ruben(photo above) July 19, 1935 Ruben Stacy 32 hangs from a tree in Ft. Lauderdale FL. Stacy was lynched by a mob of angry masked White men who seized him from the custody of sheriff’s deputies for allegedly attacking a white woman.Hang 4

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There’s a note attached to a body which reads: “Let this be a warning to you niggers to let white people alone or you will go the same way”

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26 Paul Reed and Will Cato 1904 Statesboro GA

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#LetOurVoicesEcho #BennieSimmons

Bennie Simmons soaked in coal oil before being set on fire

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April 30, 1892

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#LetOurVoicesEcho #Black Execution #Noose

In 1919, in the wake of World War I, Black sharecroppers unionized in Little Rock Arkansas, which unleashed a wave of White Vigilantism and mass lynching’s leaving 237 people dead.

#LetOurVoicesEcho #Black Execution

If you were a Black defendant, good luck challenging the prosecutor who eliminated potential witnesses or impartial jurors.

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The Tulsa race massacre of 1921 took place on May 31 and June 1, 1921, when mobs of white residents attacked black residents and businesses of the Greenwood District in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It has been called “the single worst incident of racial violence in American history

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White rioters converge outside the Douglas County Courthouse. On Sept. 27, 1919, an angry mob grabbed William Brown, a Black man, inside the courthouse after he was accused of mugging a White, handicapped man and raping the man’s fiancée. Brown was stripped, beaten unconscious and castrated before hundreds of bullets were fired into his body as he was dragged by an automobile and hanged from a downtown light pole.

#LetOurVoicesEcho #Lynching_6

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In a flag draped casket, the body of Mack Charles Parker a victim of a lynch mob is lowered into a grave. Awaiting trial on charges of having raped a pregnant white woman Parker was dragged from his unguarded cell, beat him, took him to Louisiana and then shot him by a masked mob in Poplarville in Mississippi and his body was found May 4, 1959. Although Parker’s abductors were well known and some admitted their complicity to FBI agents, the judge in the case, Sebe Dale, a white supremacist and member of the White Citizens’ Council encouraged the grand jury to return no indictments against the killers. Parker’s lynching continues to resonate after 50 years because of the unresolved issues and is among 43 unpunished killings in Mississippi from the civil rights era that the FBI is now seeking help in solving.

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Lamar Howard, 19, of Monroe, Ga., points to bruises he said he received in Atlanta from two White men, Jan. 2, 1947. Howard said they tried to force from him his testimony before a federal grand jury investigation the lynching of four blacks near Monroe in the summer 1946. 

#LetOurVoicesEcho #Black Execution #Noose #Michael Donald

March 21, 1981 Michael Donald, 20 years old lynched by the Ku Klux Klan – Last reported lynching, although not the last lynching in Mobile, Alabama, was one of the last reported lynching’s in the United States. Several Ku Klux Klan members beat and killed Michael Donald, and hung his body from a tree.

#LetOurVoicesEcho #Lynching 1889-1921

Human Zoo’s


Ota Benga (c. 1883 – March 20, 1916) was a Congolese man, a  Mbuti pygmy known for being featured in an anthropology exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri in 1904, and in a human zoo exhibit in 1906 at the Bronx Zoo. Benga had been purchased from African slave traders by the explorer Samuel Phillips Verner, a businessman hunting Africans for the Exposition.

Displays of non-white humans as examples of “earlier stages” of human evolution were common in the early 20th century, when racial theories were frequently intertwined with concepts from evolutionary biology. Read more about Ota https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ota_Benga

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Canon City

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#LetOurVoicesEcho #KKK #JohnsonCounty #KlanRally

Tuskegee Overview

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Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment

The Tuskegee syphilis experiment was an infamous clinical study conducted between 1932 and 1972, ran for forty years in Macon County, Alabama during the mid-20th century, is one of the more appalling and deceitful of the bunch.by the U.S. Public Health Service to study the natural progression of untreated syphilis in rural African American men who thought they were receiving free health care from the U.S. government.

Public Health Service enrolled six hundred Macon County men, 399 with syphilis and 201 who weren’t infected, to be part of the study. None of the men actually knew what the study was for. They were lured in with the promise of “free health care,” something that none of them had, and treatment of “bad blood,” a general localized term that encompassed several different afflictions, including anemia, fatigue, and other venereal diseases.

The men were told that they were going to get free medical exams, meals, and burial insurance. For those who actually had syphilis, they were never informed of their diagnosis nor given any treatment for it. Additionally, very painful and unnecessary spinal taps were performed on many in the study.

Subjects of the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment were never administered nor offered penicillin as treatment. The study administrators wanted to watch the progression of the disease as the men got sick and, in many cases, died for the forty years the study went on even though for much of it a relatively effective treatment was available. All total it’s estimated that 128 of the men died either directly from syphilis or complications related to it, 40 infected their wives (and in some cases possibly others), and there were 19 of the men’s children born with congenital syphilis.

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When asked why they had to receive several “back shots” (spinal taps) researcher’s repeatedly lied to the men, claims the shots were “therapeutic” when in fact the spinal taps gave insight to the infection from the spine canal to the brain.

#GeorgeStinney #Jim Crow #LetOurVoicesEcho

George Junius Stinney Jr.  (October 21, 1929 – June 16, 1944) just 14 years old was arrested for murdering two white girls, Betty June Binnicker, age 11, and Mary Emma Thames, age 7, deep in Jim Crow South in Alcolu, located in Clarendon County, South Carolina, on March 23, 1944. The girls disappeared while out riding their bicycle looking for flowers. As they passed the Stinney property, they asked young George Stinney and his sister, if they knew where to find “maypops” flower. When the girls didn’t return, search parties were organized, the girl’s bodies were found the next morning in a ditch filled with muddy water. Both had suffered severe head wounds.

Stinney was arrested within a few hours and he interrogated by several white officers in a locked room with no parents, no attorney and no witnesses aside from the officers. Within an hour, a deputy announced Stinney had confessed to the crime and led officers to “a hidden piece of iron”. There was no written record of his confession, only notes by an investigating deputy, and no transcript was recorded.

According to the alleged confession, Stinney (90 lbs, 5’1”) wanted to “have sex with”11-year-old Betty June Binnicker and could not do so until Mary Emma Thames, age 8, was removed from the scene; he decided to kill Mary Emma, both girls “fought back” so he decided to kill Betty June as well with a 15 inch railroad spike found in the same ditch a distance from the bodies.

A 2-hour trial was held, Stinney’s attorney did not cross-examine witnesses, his defense consisted of the claim Stinney was too young to be held responsible for the crimes. The all-white jury deliberated 10 minutes and found Stinney guilty of first-degree murder. That same day, the judge sentenced the teen to death by electric chair.

The execution was carried out at the South Carolina State Penitentiary in Columbia, South Carolina on the morning of June 16, 1944, 83 days after the crime. At 7:30 a.m. Stinney walked to the execution chamber, a bible under his arm which he used as a booster seat in the electric chair. There were difficulties strapping the boy who at 5’1” and just over 90 lbs. In addition, the face mask used in executions did not fit properly. When officials turned on the switch, 2,400 volts surged through Stinney’s body, causing the mask to slip off. His eyes were wide and teary, and saliva was emanating from his mouth for all the witnesses in the room to see. After two more jolts of electricity, it was over. Stinney was pronounced dead at 7:30 p.m., four minutes after the execution began and 83 days after the murders.

A deathbed confession by the culprits from a prominent tight-knit well-known white family stated: “A member, or members of our family, served on the initial coroner’s inquest jury which had recommended Stinney be prosecuted.”

The “piece of iron” with which the two girls had been killed weighed over twenty pounds. It was ruled George wasn’t able to lift it, let alone swing it hard enough to kill the two girls. 70 years later, on December 17, 2014, Judge Carmen T. Mullen overturned Stinney’s first-degree murder conviction, stating his sentencing was “cruel and unusual.” She wrote there was “a violation of the defendant’s procedural due process rights that tainted his prosecution. George Stinney is the youngest person in the United States ever put to death by the electric chair.

Cousins Recall Emmett Louis Till’s Murder
https://whatzenalotionbar.wordpress.com/emmett-tills-cousins-recall-historic-murder/

Sanger

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Oppose

A poster rallying White voters to oppose enfranchisement allowing African American’s to vote

White Only

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Lancaster Ohio 1938White Only 2

Freedom Riders

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Detroit 1943-001

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Police Dogs

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Alabama State Troopers Attack John Lewis st the Edmund Pettis Bridge

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Mumia Abu Jamal in his younger years as a member of The Philadelphia Chapter of the Black Panthers Party for Self Defense.

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1963 Demonstration Virginia

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Detroit 1943

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Segregated drinking fountains No. Carolina 1950

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1963 Brother Malcolm Nation Building

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White people abusing Blacks by pouring food and drinks on Black people

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Seen around the borders of the curfew zone which makes explicit the policies of White People’s racism

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16th St. Bombing

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CollageSeptember 10, 1963 a white student had been photographed wearing a sign on his shirt that read “Keep West End White.” On either side of the word “Keep” appeared two Confederate flagsLittle Rock School

Patricia Marcus“Birmingham, ALA., Sept. 11, 1963 —CAR WINDOW SMASHED—One of two Negro girl students who desegregated West End High School in Birmingham sits in car and is partially framed by broken auto window. A rock was hurled through the window as the Negro girls were leaving the school area after class this afternoon. (APWirephoto) 1963”

#CivilRightsMovement #Racism #PoliceBrutality #LetOurVoicesEcho

#LetOurVoicesEcho #Racism #CivilRights 1963

1963 “Civil Disobedience” Brooklyn’ s Downstate Medical Center NY Solitary woman’s act of defiance was far from the deep South

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Black man being forced to kiss the foot of some White man

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Records

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Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia
The Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia at Ferris State University, Big Rapids, Michigan, displays a wide variety of everyday artifacts depicting the history of racist portrayals of African Americans in American popular culture.
1010 Campus Dr, Big Rapids, MI 49307
https://ferris.edu/jimcrow/

Explaining White Privilege to a Broke White Person 

https://letourvoicesecho.wordpress.com/2015/12/02/explaining-white-privilege-to-White Mana-broke-white-person/

White HOuse

Jim Zwerg

Jim Zwerg

In 1961, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) began to organize Freedom Rides. The first departed from Washington DC and involved 13 black and white riders who rode into the South challenging white only lunch counters and restaurants. When they reached Anniston, Alabama one of the buses was ambushed and attacked. Meanwhile, at an SNCC meeting in Tennessee, Lewis, Zwerg and 11 other volunteers decided to be reinforcements. Zwerg was the only white male in the group. Although scared for his life, Zwerg never had second thoughts. He recalled, “My faith was never so strong as during that time. I knew I was doing what I should be doing.”

The group traveled by bus to Birmingham, where Zwerg was first arrested for not moving to the back of the bus with his black seating companion, Paul Brooks. Three days later, the riders regrouped and headed to Montgomery. At first the terminal there was quiet and eerie, but the scene turned into an ambush, with the riders attacked from all directions. . “Mr. Zwerg was hit with his own suitcase in the face. Then he was knocked down and a group pummeled him” The prostrate activist was beaten into unconsciousness somewhere around the time a man took Zwerg’s head between his knees while others took turns pounding and clawing at his face. At one point while Zwerg was unconscious, three men held him up while a woman kicked him in the groin. After it seemed that the worst of the onslaught was over, Zwerg gained semi-consciousness and tried to use the handrails to the loading platform to pull himself to his feet. As he struggled to get upright, a white man came and threw Zwerg over the rail. He crashed to the ground below, landing on his head. He was only the first to be beaten that day, but the attack on him may have been the most ruthless. Zwerg recalls, “There was nothing particularly heroic in what I did. If you want to talk about heroism, consider the black man who probably saved my life. This man in coveralls, just off of work, happened to walk by as my beating was going on and said ‘Stop beating that kid. If you want to beat someone, beat me.’ And they did. He was still unconscious when I left the hospital. I don’t know if he lived or died.”

Zwerg was denied prompt medical attention because there were no white ambulances available. “I suppose a person has to be dead before anyone will call an ambulance in Montgomery” were Jim’s words as he lay in the hospital bed after being brutally beaten. He remained unconscious for two days and stayed in the hospital for five days. His post-riot photos were published in many newspapers and magazines across the country. After his beating, Zwerg claimed he had had an incredible religious experience and God helped him to not fight back. In a 2013 interview recalling the incident, he said, “In that instant, I had the most incredible religious experience of my life. I felt a presence with me. A peace. Calmness. It was just like I was surrounded by kindness, love. I knew in that instance that whether I lived or died, I would be OK.” In a famous moving speech from his hospital room, Zwerg stated, “Segregation must be stopped. It must be broken down. Those of us on the Freedom Ride will continue…. We’re dedicated to this, we’ll take hitting, we’ll take beating. We’re willing to accept death. But we’re going to keep coming until we can ride from anywhere in the South to any place else in the South without anybody making any comments, just as American citizens.”

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America was built on the back of Native Americans and Blacks; these are things EVERY White American should be ashamed of, certainly not proud of.
https://letourvoicesecho.wordpress.com/america-was-built-on-the-back-of-native-americans-and-blacks/

By the way, the term “Final Solution” was not coined by the Nazis. It was Indian Affairs Superintendent, Duncan Campbell Scott, Canada’s Adolph Eichmann, who in April 1910 plotted out the planned murder to take care of the “Indian problem”.

Equal Justice Initiative ~ A HISTORY OF RACIAL INJUSTICE
https://racialinjustice.eji.org/timeline/

101 Massacres – 23,000 plus, 1st Nation Peoples Exterminated by White Settlers and Military
https://letourvoicesecho.wordpress.com/100-massacres/

press

Kristeen Irigoyen-Hernandez
Human Rights Advocate, Researcher/Chronological Archivist and member in good standing with the Constitution First Amendment Press Association (CFAPA.org)

Barriers, Borders, and Blood This is NOT My History

Disobey squareThank you Rudy TwoMoon

If America is built from many nations, why is it offensive to be anything other than white?

Am I an enrolled member of my nation’s tribe? Nope. I’m Yaqui Apache, Mayan, and Aztec, on the Mexico side, even though Yaqui is recognized in Arizona. There is no paper trail for my family. It is Sad to think we need a card to prove our second rate subhuman citizen standard.

CruzMy dad’s mom who is full blood Mayan. She was kidnapped by a full blood Yaqui. He took her deep into Mexico and had 9 children with her. When he died, she married my dad’s dad who was also a full blood Yaqui and they moved back to Arizona.

My dad is the 2nd youngest of 11 kids. Many of my uncles tried to find out more information about our history. A few of them have passed on, from what I understand, and they knew more of the story and remembered the tribal life. My dad, at one point, asked his mom about the story and was refused an answer. Later, he found out from his older brother it was actually better to be a border jumping Mexican than it was to be Indian.

Think for a moment how bad a lot of Americans dislike Mexicans. Now imagine how bad it must have been to be Indian, to hide who you are and never talk about your past even to your own children.

If you ask most Americans what a Mexican is, they haven’t a clue. They believe a border was always separating “good, clean, wholesome Americans” from “dirty, bad, stealing, murdering Mexicans.” They haven’t a clue we would travel from the highest point of Canada to the lowest points of South America while trading, learning, giving, and even sometimes fighting.

Overall, most travelers were respectful to other customs and brought new medicines or food. Americans haven’t a clue about how the two rows of corn closest to a path was always dedicated to travelers and guests, not just in the South America, but almost everywhere.

They have no clue Mexico is native land! They have no clue Mexico is indigenous! The only difference between these 2 lands are, here in the USA, most of us were eradicated so slave owning families could separate themselves from a crown and thus avoid taxation.

In Mexico, the Black slave trade along with Spanish rape of indigenous people and Blacks created a beautiful new human who has been fighting assimilation for 520 straight years… just like us indigenous people here on this part of Turtle Island.

Rudy20-002If you ask many Americans what American culture is, they have no answer, because there isn’t one. They think tomatoes come from Italy, and the honeybee was always here. They think the turkey was brought to these lands, and the chicken is indigenous to the Americas.

If you ask an educated American where the first nations come from, they will more than likely state Africa, even though this has been disproven time and time again by even the occupier’s science.

Yes, even white science has proven the indigenous of this land have DNA unlike any other nation found on this planet. This proves we didn’t cross a land bridge to get here like the regurgitated 1902 theory demands you believe.

The occupier’s history would have you believe the Indian died out with the Woolly mammoth, and those who happened to survive by the graces of this government’s good will and fair democratic process, have preserved the Indian by fashioning him in the image of land and water rapists.

They would have you believe it is our own stupidity if we should wish to even consider going back to an uncivilized world without taxes, low paying jobs, or being able to step away from being a slave to the poisoned food system and a destroyed planet.

The education system needs us all to believe we were savage cannibals who were always at war with one another, so no one ever realizes the civilized world isn’t actually civil to any life form in the least.

AmeriKKKan education is a sickness which should be avoided at all costs, by everyone!

“Only a fool would allow his enemy to teach his kids.”—Malcolm X

Walking While Ethnic


Lady2Soothe

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Systemic racial profiling and nationwide police violence threaten the lives of Ethnic Americans — youth and adults — EVERY day.

Abuse against all people(s) regardless of race, color, national origin, homeless, religion, age, sexual orientation or manner of clothing is becoming abundantly rampant. Discriminatory racial profiling by police is nothing new and is huge in law enforcement, risking the lives of many innocent people.

RACIAL and ETHNIC PROFILING: The term racial profiling refers to the practice. Whereby law-enforcement, intelligence, or homeland security personal factor the race or ethnic characteristics of any given *suspect* into their respective decision making process. This practice became particularly controversial toward the end of the 20th century when civil rights leaders charges that profiling was rooted in racism and the targeting, disproportionately and unjustly of Blacks and other non-white minorities.

1. Discrimination based on stereotypes
2. The concept of racial profiling has been defined in many ways, including:
3. Any police-initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being, or having been, engaged in criminal activity.”
4. Racially-biased policing occurs when law enforcement inappropriately considers race or ethnicity in deciding with whom and how to intervene in an enforcement capacity.”
5. Using race as a key factor in deciding whether to make a Traffic Stop or Stop and Frisk Policy.
6. It appears at least two clearly distinguishable definitions of the term ‘racial profiling’: a narrow definition and a broad definition… Under the narrow definition, racial profiling occurs when a police officer stops, questions, arrests, and/or searches someone solely on the basis of the person’s race or ethnicity… Under the broader definition, racial profiling occurs whenever police routinely use race as a factor that, along with an accumulation of other factors, causes an officer to react with suspicion and take action

History: The existence of racial profiling dates back to slavery. In 1693, Philadelphia’s court officials gave police legal authority to stop and detain any Negro (freed or slaved) seen wandering around on the streets. This discriminatory practice continued through the Jim Crow era and now in the twenty-first century, racial profiling is prevalent across cities in the U.S.

One of the core principles of the Fourth Amendment is that the police cannot stop and detain an individual without some reason – probable cause, or at least reasonable suspicion – to believe that he or she is involved in criminal activity. But recent Supreme Court decisions allow the police to use traffic stops as a pretext in order to “fish” for evidence. Both anecdotal and quantitative data show that nationwide, the police exercise this discretionary power primarily against African Americans and Latinos.

In a scene of the movie Men In Black II: Agent J. shows an auto-driving car to Agent K. The auto-piloted car has a driver-shaped airbag which can be deployed with the press of a button on the steering wheel. The fake driver is Caucasian, with a black suit, white shirt and black tie. The dialog:

Agent K: Does that come standard? [pointing to the driver-shaped airbag]
Agent J: Actually it came with a black dude, but he kept getting pulled over.

FOURTH AMENDMENT – SEARCH and SEIZURE – U.S. CONSTITUTION: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? The Constitution, through the Fourth Amendment, protects people from unreasonable searches and seizures by the government. The Fourth Amendment, however, is not a guarantee against all searches and seizures, but only those that are deemed unreasonable under the law. Whether a particular type of search is considered reasonable in the eyes of the law, is determined by balancing two important interests. On one side of the scale is the intrusion on an individual’s Fourth Amendment rights. On the other side of the scale are legitimate government interests, such as public safety.The extent to which an individual is protected by the Fourth Amendment depends, in part, on the location of the search or seizure.

PROBABLE CAUSE: The standards of probable cause differ for an arrest and a search. The government has a probable cause to make an arrest when “the facts and circumstances within their knowledge and of which they had reasonably trustworthy information” would lead a prudent person to believe that the arrested person had committed or was committing a crime. Probable cause to arrest must exist before the arrest is made. Evidence obtained after the arrest may not apply retroactively to justify the arrest. When police conduct a search, the amendment requires that the warrant establish probable cause to believe that the search will uncover criminal activity or contraband. They must have legally sufficient reasons to believe a search is necessary.

PEOPLE:

When an officer observes unusual conduct which leads him reasonably to conclude that criminal activity may be afoot, the officer may briefly stop the suspicious person and make reasonable inquiries aimed at confirming or dispelling the officer’s suspicions.

VEHICLES:

1. Where there is probable cause to believe that a vehicle contains evidence of a criminal activity, an officer may lawfully search any area of the vehicle in which the evidence might be found.
2. An officer may conduct a traffic stop if he has reasonable suspicion that a traffic violation has occurred or that criminal activity is afoot.
3. An officer may conduct a pat-down of the driver and passengers during a lawful traffic stop; the police need not believe that any occupant of the vehicle is involved in a criminal activity.
4. The use of a narcotics detection dog to walk around the exterior of a car subject to a valid traffic stop does not require reasonable, explainable suspicion.
5. Special law enforcement concerns will sometimes justify highway stops without any individualized suspicion.
6. An officer at an international border may conduct routine stops and searches.
7. A state may use highway sobriety checkpoints for the purpose of combating drunk driving.
8. A state may set up highway checkpoints where the stops are brief and seek voluntary cooperation in the investigation of a recent crime that has occurred on that highway.
9. However, a state may not use a highway checkpoint program whose primary purpose is the discovery and interdiction of illegal narcotics.

 
My definition of Unarmed
Please keep in mind I am only able to research and write bio’s on 5-7 victims per day. Each bio is verified through multiple sources, photos are retrieved, copied, cropped. Each bio is written and condensed close as possible to a single paragraph, many have links to READ MORE. Each name, age, state and ethnicity are entered into 3 data bases and then, after all pertinent information has been gathered I individually post to the website. Therefore each bio takes anywhere from 30 to 60 minutes to complete.

I repeat, it is at my discretion as to what I consider as being unarmed. If the person has a weapon but is unable to use it because it’s under a seat, knocked to the side, fallen to the ground, in someone else’s possession etc. I consider that person unarmed. If someone is shot in the back, I consider that person unarmed. If the person is mentally ill and can be contained without using deadly force, I consider that person unarmed. If ANYONE can be contained without using deadly force, I consider that person unarmed.

There is no reason, in my opinion to shoot someone when police manage to apprehend and incarcerate extraordinarily dangerous serial killers/ mass murderers/spree killers and vigilantes yet cannot manage the capture of citizens of ethnic lineage without executing them.

However, if someone is shooting, holding a weapon or hurting someone (including an officer) and there is absolutely no other way to control them, I consider that person armed. Mind you, I credit witness statements far above police reports.

I DO NOT believe Law Enforcement reports. Lies the police tell that are so familiar anyone can recite them: “Reached for waist band”; “Pointed hand at police in a threatening manner.” “Backed the car toward officers” “Lunged at me” “Had a black object in hand” “Tried to grab gun” “Officers of the Un-Peace” or “Un-Peace Officers” Campaigns were formed against the “Blue Code” supposedly making it more visible to the public eye have taken place but all they seem to be doing is allowing the police to police the police and the police. Police are liars, period. So please don’t think I would even consider relying on their statements. The code of Blue Silence is too real to be ignored, and has been proven over and over again to be the real badge of the law.

As for Grand Juries they’ve been bought and paid for in more cases than can be counted. There is something fundamentally unfair about a grand jury system which doesn’t reflect the racial, political and ethnic diversity of the community it serves and the people it indicts.

Excerpts from:
US Constitution
ACLU
Racial and Ethnic Profiling
Wikipedia- Driving While Black
Wikipedia – Racial Profiling

I am My Brother’s Keeper

Thank you to Dr. Julie TwoMoon

Julie

I am my brother’s keeper, it is my responsibility to live with my brother in mind. I cannot assume it to be enough to think of my brother when it is time for a tax deduction, or societal applause. I cannot place myself above my brother if I am to be one with my brother, it won’t work. As a doctor, if I am my brother’s keeper, then my medicine cannot be out of reach of my brother for any reason at any time.

I cannot presume privilege because I was born on one continent over another, or on one side of a line than another. For I was given a responsibility to care, that was my mandate for life. It is because I take this seriously that I eat organic food, I plant flowers for bees and butterflies and I limit my spending for cheap material goods.

Some think these actions to be of elitism and money, or of a fanatical desire to live forever, but they are in fact my act of peace and support of my sister. These choices are my way of not participating in the subjugation of my sister, the enslavement of my sister, even if she does not know she is a slave.

I see the bars around my brother’s house, I see the chains at his ankles and I see the blindfold he wears making him think he is free. In front of his eyes, plays a mirage of goods and words of freedom with an always tantalizing option of success dangling just out of reach. I see the story he has been told, one where his life gets better if he just buys a bit more. I see how he has been led into the arena, pitted against his mother, his sister, his father in a battle for something which doesn’t even exist. I see this, and I call out but his ears have been tuned to only one message.

Which is why I choose what I do. I am my sisters keeper and her life is my own. For all my freedoms, for the things I see which she does not, I am not free until she is. My body cannot heal unless she can, I cannot claim victory if she is wasting away. As she is fed modified foods, poisoned with weaponized spray, as she drinks water filled with industrial waste, as she is shot up, drugged, and made ill by those tasked with healing her, I too am made ill.

I am my brother’s keeper, which is why I stand here and will stand speaking this message for the moments in between news broadcasts and reality shows where a second of silence lets my voice through screaming,

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See more at at the Good Men Project:

Read more of Dr. Julie’s Articles:
I am My Brother’s Keeper I cannot presume privilege because Read more…

Parenting Is Directly Reflected In How We Feed Our Kids A better society depends on Read more

What if Nature Spoke Directly to You?



What if Nature Spoke Directly to You?
Authored by Rudy TwoMoon
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The Great Gathered Circle
And all were gathered before the Great Thunders. All came with compassion and great respect. All spoke with the highest regard for each other and all spoke for the mother inside and out. Not all present spoke, but would listen and nod their heads when words were spoken true. And all were present, except one.

The Eagle, who is the ears and eyes of Creation, spoke first.
“Many of myself are honored and remembered in sacred ways. Songs are sung and dances spoken. I have seen from the skies the heated Mound Mothers they crawl into as a sacrifice for prayers, not for themselves, but for others in hopes they will reach you Great Thunders. May you take these prayers to creation. They honor the feather, and guard it with pride. They hold true and follow the pipe. They seek your advice and they are not the people we speak of today. Today we speak of another. I ask my silent brother Wolf to come forth and speak to you, Wise One, and you, take our words to Creation.”

Stepping forward, Wolf said,
“Thank you Great Eagle for watching over me and allowing me this moment.”

Looking up at Great Thunders, Wolf began,
“Thank you Great Thunders for your gift of waters and light and for hearing my words today. Eagle is correct when he says there is another we speak of. These others have waged war on us. They take our flesh without feeling thankful and trade it for paper. They take our land and our young. They take our heads and decorate their walls. Most humiliating of all, they laugh while they do these things. They do not eat us. They say we are killers. They say we hunt them in their forests of concrete, they say we destroy their foods and we do not understand why. We are very few now. I have said enough here today and ask Buffalo, the wise and noble to speak. AHO!”

Stepping from the Great Gathered Circle, Buffalo stood with dignity and sadness.
“I Buffalo, have seen the greatness of the people. I have prayed with them and given my flesh. In turn they have honored me as they have honored Wolf and Eagle. They have laid down their lives to protect me. They have cried when my people were murdered by the millions. They have suffered like Wolf and I. These people are also hunted for their hair and land. Again, these are not the ones we speak of today.

I ask you Great Thunder to protect these people who carry Creations wisdom. I ask you to watch over the people in the same way you watch over us. I pray they hold strong and not turn from the old ways. But I have seen many do just this. The lands which surround them make them forget. The people who surround them also make them forget. Their own families even make them forget. The foods and medicines they now eat make them forget. They do not understand the true medicines are right at their feet, and they fear these medicines as if they are evil enemies. They believe light from the sun is poison. These ancient ones are becoming like the others. They take the earth and trees, build walls to keep themselves from us. They do as the others tell them, even when it causes great hurt to themselves. These are what my eyes and heart have seen. I have spoken. Aho.”

Flying into the lightening mist, Vulture spoke.
“I also wish to speak”, said Vulture. “Many good prayers have been thought today. Many good words have been exchanged. We are all here to remember the teachings and share them as they must be shared. They also have honored me with songs and stories. Long ago I brought sacred light from the sun to the people. They have used this fire to heat the Sacred Grandmother Stones to pray with. This fire almost burned away not so long ago. It has come back strong and is being used for healing again. But it is also being used for destruction. They harvest this fire in seeds which erupt like lightening. The others have taken this power to cause great death for many. They even kill those they have created in their own image! This I do not understand Great Thunders. Maybe Great Whale would also care to speak.”

Looking to the waters as one, the Gathered Circle listened with compassion.
“The waters are too vast, so I will not speak for myself.” Great whale spoke. “Instead I will speak for all who lives in this water. The people pray with us while the others prey on us. On the surface of the world, the others use fire and poison to do much harm. Down here they capture many of us and still they starve the children of their own. They take the mothers blood from the earth bottom and pour it on us from the surface. They poison the medicines and allow us to drown in it. I have heard the people sing and drum against the others, and this is good. I have heard the people pray for the others and this is also good. We, People of the Water sing and pray with them. We pray the others see what they do. We pray for their healing in the way it will heal us all. We of the waters have spoken. AHO.”

The great Thunders had been silent and listened with respect. After a long period, Great Thunder finally spoke.
“You have all gathered here in a good way. I have heard your cries and prayers. I have also witnessed the actions of the others. Like Water, I too am everywhere. I am everything. These others know what they do. They know why they do them. They know who they hurt. I know they create death in their concrete buildings. Is my power not there as well? I know their secrets. I will take your message to creation and ask what we shall do with these others. AHO. “

A short distance away, a shape stood and Creation spoke up.
“You do not need to bring me this message”, Creation said in a kind voice. “I have always been here. I am you. I have heard your pleas and your prayers. You have all suffered a great deal, and have given much. Too much. But there is more for you to do.”

Turtle walked towards the center of the circle. With a deeply troubled look, turtle asked,
“Why must we continue to suffer for the greed and fear of the others? Why must we suffer just because they feast from pain and destruction? Why must we sit here and witness what they do to us, and the people?”

Creation turned its caring eyes to Turtle and replied,
“Do not fear. Even though you have been slaughtered, abused, ignored and slaved. One day soon, the others will realize. Like a reflection understanding its own reflection, that what is done to you, they do to themselves. And soon they will come to you to guide and teach them the way. It will be your responsibility to share in this blessing. Do not seek vengeance. Be patient… For you are the original keepers of wisdom.”

~Ishkadai-ossin
Stone That Lights The Fire
THE GREAT GATHERED CIRCLE ©Rudy TwoMoon
See more at: http://goodmenproject.com/featured-content/table-people-wcz/#sthash.IubbPNWs.dpuf

Read more about: Rudy TwoMoon in an interview used by permission from Mad World Radio

Read more of Rudy’s Articles:
The Table People: 100 objects are sitting on a table with 2 unknown men, one on each side. Both pick up 2 objects and … Read more

The Terms of Real Freedom No one but ourselves can change our surroundings. There is never enough hope going around, and that’s why …Read more

The Enemy of My Enemy is My Friend? Is my enemy my friend because he hates me? Read more

If I Were an Evil Genius I would first develop definitions of words imposed on my enemies only they are allowed to use. Next, I would Read more

What if Nature Spoke Directly to You? When a man tunes his ear to the voice of the land and nature, a new perspective can emerge. Do you have the courage to listen? Read more

I Don’t Care About Mascots, Headdresses, and Team Names Many of the light skinned race believe what the media has taught them about our ways. We never went extinct and still have and carry our teachings which go back thousands of Read more

GMO Labeling is a Fraud Strip away the layers and follow the money to find the truth behind the GMO labelling campaign… Read More…

Are you ready for a food fight?
Try this. Go to your cupboard and take out 20 random food items Read More…

It’s About to Get All Zen Up in This Place! The air we breath together transmits the sounds that can join us in the moment. Is this Zen? Read more…

We are IndigenousI have ancestors on both sides of this invisible line Read more

AIM Eagle Feather Staff See the new Michigan AIM Eagle Staff Read more

Are You Being Controlled by Your Food Supply? Long ago a group of very rich people sat down to a table and they gathered for Read more

The Enemy of My Enemy is My Friend?



The Enemy of My Enemy is My Friend?
Authored by Rudy TwoMoon

Self

Self punishment, oppression, and the imbalance of man and nature. Do I love or hate myself. Is my enemy my friend because he hates me?

I have been doing some personal reflection and realized I have been angry at the wrong people but for all the right reasons. When ghettos slaved us, instead of fighting the oppressors, we killed each other. We chose color or class. We dealt with our problems with alcohol and drugs. We beat our children because they were the small ones we could take out anger on. Then we beat them again because it hurt us – to hurt the ones we love. We use punishment to punish ourselves

Unfortunately, people have been trained to believe we need a common enemy before we come together. I guess this must be true or we wouldn’t be fighting ourselves so much. We must harm our enemy so we may punish ourselves for some unknown crime we have committed. The enemy of my enemy is my friend. Do I love or hate myself. Is my enemy my friend because he hates me?

Non-Native American Nations Control over North America 1750-2008 Wikimedia Commons:
Now in a time when all colors and classes have no other options but to be brothers and sisters, real relations, “WE” the most oppressed are saying, “see, it can and will happen to you. You deserve this for not standing with us, you turned your head to avoid guilt. You only want to stand because it only now concerns you.

Those who ignored us were also being used. They were being trained to fear us. Being trained to take from us. Being trained to say, “Stop your bitching, that was so long ago.” Even 519 years later we all still hold the guilt of oppressed or oppressor.

The problem is bigger than us. The problem is not just on this land, but every land surrounding us. The problem is in the air our factories abuse; in the sweet clean water we can no longer drink. It’s in the ground our food grows from. It’s in the oceans where our swimming relations live and now die because we haven’t come together as an all nation’s people.

This battle isn’t about just people; we have proven we are a cancer on this wise and loving mother we bite and scratch. We rape the mother with ignorance and blame. We kill what we think is our lesser. Our winged, many legged, water, and four legged creatures are being punished for our sins. We are harming them so we may punish ourselves.

We must protect us from ourselves.
It is time we stand for all. We are the protectors and we must protect them from ourselves. We must protect us from ourselves. I am now understanding why forgiveness is so important. 40 years later and it is only now starting to make sense. When we punish ourselves it harms others. When we punish others, it harms us.
So when you stand against greed, make sure it’s not for selfish reasons. At every moment try to think of everyone and everything around you. You are the center of the universe and when you move – you are still the center wherever you walk.
You are the ripple in the water and the cause.

Just one of many examples of indigenous injustice in the Americas:
“On 5/19/1848 Mexico ratified the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (signed on February 2, 1848) in which they ceded California, Nevada, Utah and parts of six other modern-day states to the United States for $15 million. No indigenous groups were consulted in this massive transfer of land. Articles VIII and IX of the treaty ensured the safety of existing property rights of Mexican citizens living in the transferred territories, yet no part of the treaty considered the indigenous people or their rights in the lands transferred.” Indigenous Peoples Issues and Resources”

See more at: http://goodmenproject.com/featured-content/table-people-wcz/#sthash.IubbPNWs.dpuf

Read more about: Rudy TwoMoon in an interview used by permission from Mad World Radio

Read more of Rudy’s Articles:
The Table People: 100 objects are sitting on a table with 2 unknown men, one on each side. Both pick up 2 objects and … Read more

The Terms of Real Freedom No one but ourselves can change our surroundings. There is never enough hope going around, and that’s why …Read more

The Enemy of My Enemy is My Friend? Is my enemy my friend because he hates me? Read more

If I Were an Evil Genius I would first develop definitions of words imposed on my enemies only they are allowed to use. Next, I would Read more

What if Nature Spoke Directly to You? When a man tunes his ear to the voice of the land and nature, a new perspective can emerge. Do you have the courage to listen? Read more

I Don’t Care About Mascots, Headdresses, and Team Names Many of the light skinned race believe what the media has taught them about our ways. We never went extinct and still have and carry our teachings which go back thousands of Read more

GMO Labeling is a Fraud Strip away the layers and follow the money to find the truth behind the GMO labelling campaign… Read More…

Are you ready for a food fight?
Try this. Go to your cupboard and take out 20 random food items Read More…

It’s About to Get All Zen Up in This Place! The air we breath together transmits the sounds that can join us in the moment. Is this Zen? Read more…

We are IndigenousI have ancestors on both sides of this invisible line Read more

AIM Eagle Feather Staff See the new Michigan AIM Eagle Staff Read more

Are You Being Controlled by Your Food Supply? Long ago a group of very rich people sat down to a table and they gathered for Read more